In-Company Smart Charging: Development of a Simulation Model to Facilitate a Smart EV Charging System

Mike Voss, Steven P. Haveman, G.Maarten Bonnema*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

8 Downloads (Pure)


Current electric vehicle (EV) charging systems have limited smart functionality, and most research focuses on load-balancing the national or regional grid. In this article, we focus on supporting the early design of a smart charging system that can effectively and efficiently charge a company’s EV fleet, maximizing the use of self-generated Photo-Voltaic energy. The support takes place in the form of the Vehicle Charging Simulation (VeCS) model. System performance is determined by operational costs, CO2 emissions and employee satisfaction. Two impactful smart charging functions concern adaptive charging speeds and charging point management. Simulation algorithms for these functions are developed. The VeCS model is developed to simulate implementation of a smart charging system incorporating both charging infrastructure and local Photo-Voltaics input, using a company’s travel and energy data, prior to having the EVs in place. The model takes into account travel behaviour, energy input and energy consumption on a daily basis. The model shows the number of charged vehicles, whether incomplete charges occur, and energy flow during the day. The model also facilitates simulation of an entire year to determine overall cost and emission benefits. It also estimates charging costs and CO2 emissions that can be compared to the non-EV situation. With the VeCS model, the impact of various system design and implementation choices can be explored before EVs are used. Two system designs are proposed for the case company; a short-term version with current technology and a future version with various smart functionalities. Overall, the model can contribute to substantiated advice for a company regarding implementation of charging infrastructure.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6723
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2021


  • Electric Vehicles
  • Smart Charging
  • Simulation Model
  • Implementation
  • UT-Gold-D


Dive into the research topics of 'In-Company Smart Charging: Development of a Simulation Model to Facilitate a Smart EV Charging System'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this