In situ observation of stress relaxation in epitaxial graphene: Supplement I/II

Alpha T. N'diaye, Raoul van Gastel, Antonio J. Martínez-Galera, Johann Coraux, Hichem Hattab, Dirk Wall, Frank-J. Meyer zu Heringdorf, Michael Horn von Hoegen, José M. Gómez-Rodríguez, Bene Poelsema, Carsten Busse, Thomas Michely

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Abstract

Upon cooling, branched line defects develop in epitaxial graphene grown at high temperature on Pt(111) and Ir(111). Using atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy we demonstrate that these defects are wrinkles in the graphene layer, i.e. stripes of partially delaminated graphene. With low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) we investigate the wrinkling phenomenon in situ. Upon temperature cycling we observe hysteresis in the appearance and disappearance of the wrinkles. Simultaneously with wrinkle formation a change in bright field imaging intensity of adjacent areas and a shift in the moire spot positions for micro diffraction of such areas takes place. The stress relieved by wrinkle formation results from the mismatch in thermal expansion coefficients of graphene and the substrate. A simple one-dimensional model taking into account the energies related to strain, delamination and bending of graphene is in qualitative agreement with our observations.
Original languageEnglish
PublisherarXiv.org
Number of pages17
Publication statusPublished - 2009

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stress relaxation
supplements
graphene
wrinkling
defects
scanning tunneling microscopy
thermal expansion
electron microscopy
hysteresis
cooling
cycles
energy
shift
coefficients
diffraction
temperature

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N'diaye, A. T., van Gastel, R., Martínez-Galera, A. J., Coraux, J., Hattab, H., Wall, D., ... Michely, T. (2009). In situ observation of stress relaxation in epitaxial graphene: Supplement I/II. arXiv.org.
N'diaye, Alpha T. ; van Gastel, Raoul ; Martínez-Galera, Antonio J. ; Coraux, Johann ; Hattab, Hichem ; Wall, Dirk ; Meyer zu Heringdorf, Frank-J. ; Horn von Hoegen, Michael ; Gómez-Rodríguez, José M. ; Poelsema, Bene ; Busse, Carsten ; Michely, Thomas. / In situ observation of stress relaxation in epitaxial graphene : Supplement I/II. arXiv.org, 2009.
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title = "In situ observation of stress relaxation in epitaxial graphene: Supplement I/II",
abstract = "Upon cooling, branched line defects develop in epitaxial graphene grown at high temperature on Pt(111) and Ir(111). Using atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy we demonstrate that these defects are wrinkles in the graphene layer, i.e. stripes of partially delaminated graphene. With low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) we investigate the wrinkling phenomenon in situ. Upon temperature cycling we observe hysteresis in the appearance and disappearance of the wrinkles. Simultaneously with wrinkle formation a change in bright field imaging intensity of adjacent areas and a shift in the moire spot positions for micro diffraction of such areas takes place. The stress relieved by wrinkle formation results from the mismatch in thermal expansion coefficients of graphene and the substrate. A simple one-dimensional model taking into account the energies related to strain, delamination and bending of graphene is in qualitative agreement with our observations.",
author = "N'diaye, {Alpha T.} and {van Gastel}, Raoul and Mart{\'i}nez-Galera, {Antonio J.} and Johann Coraux and Hichem Hattab and Dirk Wall and {Meyer zu Heringdorf}, Frank-J. and {Horn von Hoegen}, Michael and G{\'o}mez-Rodr{\'i}guez, {Jos{\'e} M.} and Bene Poelsema and Carsten Busse and Thomas Michely",
year = "2009",
language = "English",
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N'diaye, AT, van Gastel, R, Martínez-Galera, AJ, Coraux, J, Hattab, H, Wall, D, Meyer zu Heringdorf, F-J, Horn von Hoegen, M, Gómez-Rodríguez, JM, Poelsema, B, Busse, C & Michely, T 2009 'In situ observation of stress relaxation in epitaxial graphene: Supplement I/II' arXiv.org.

In situ observation of stress relaxation in epitaxial graphene : Supplement I/II. / N'diaye, Alpha T.; van Gastel, Raoul; Martínez-Galera, Antonio J.; Coraux, Johann; Hattab, Hichem; Wall, Dirk; Meyer zu Heringdorf, Frank-J.; Horn von Hoegen, Michael; Gómez-Rodríguez, José M.; Poelsema, Bene; Busse, Carsten; Michely, Thomas.

arXiv.org, 2009.

Research output: Working paperProfessional

TY - UNPB

T1 - In situ observation of stress relaxation in epitaxial graphene

T2 - Supplement I/II

AU - N'diaye, Alpha T.

AU - van Gastel, Raoul

AU - Martínez-Galera, Antonio J.

AU - Coraux, Johann

AU - Hattab, Hichem

AU - Wall, Dirk

AU - Meyer zu Heringdorf, Frank-J.

AU - Horn von Hoegen, Michael

AU - Gómez-Rodríguez, José M.

AU - Poelsema, Bene

AU - Busse, Carsten

AU - Michely, Thomas

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - Upon cooling, branched line defects develop in epitaxial graphene grown at high temperature on Pt(111) and Ir(111). Using atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy we demonstrate that these defects are wrinkles in the graphene layer, i.e. stripes of partially delaminated graphene. With low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) we investigate the wrinkling phenomenon in situ. Upon temperature cycling we observe hysteresis in the appearance and disappearance of the wrinkles. Simultaneously with wrinkle formation a change in bright field imaging intensity of adjacent areas and a shift in the moire spot positions for micro diffraction of such areas takes place. The stress relieved by wrinkle formation results from the mismatch in thermal expansion coefficients of graphene and the substrate. A simple one-dimensional model taking into account the energies related to strain, delamination and bending of graphene is in qualitative agreement with our observations.

AB - Upon cooling, branched line defects develop in epitaxial graphene grown at high temperature on Pt(111) and Ir(111). Using atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy we demonstrate that these defects are wrinkles in the graphene layer, i.e. stripes of partially delaminated graphene. With low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) we investigate the wrinkling phenomenon in situ. Upon temperature cycling we observe hysteresis in the appearance and disappearance of the wrinkles. Simultaneously with wrinkle formation a change in bright field imaging intensity of adjacent areas and a shift in the moire spot positions for micro diffraction of such areas takes place. The stress relieved by wrinkle formation results from the mismatch in thermal expansion coefficients of graphene and the substrate. A simple one-dimensional model taking into account the energies related to strain, delamination and bending of graphene is in qualitative agreement with our observations.

M3 - Working paper

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ER -

N'diaye AT, van Gastel R, Martínez-Galera AJ, Coraux J, Hattab H, Wall D et al. In situ observation of stress relaxation in epitaxial graphene: Supplement I/II. arXiv.org. 2009.