The enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is added at different concentrations (i.e., 0, 2.5, and 10 mg · ml−1) to oligo(poly(ethylene glycol)fumarate) (OPF) hydrogels. The scaffolds are either incubated in 10 mM calcium glycerophosphate (Ca–GP) solution for 2 weeks or implanted in a rat subcutaneous model for 4 weeks. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and alizarin red staining show a strong ability to form minerals exclusively in ALP-containing hydrogels in vitro. Additionally, the calcium content increases with increasing ALP concentration. Similarly, only ALP-containing hydrogels induce mineralization in vivo. Specifically, small (≈5–20 µm) mineral deposits are observed at the periphery of the hydrogels near the dermis/scaffold interface using Von Kossa and alizarin red staining.