The brain is the most complex organ of the body, and many pathological processes underlying various brain disorders are poorly understood. Limited accessibility hinders observation of such processes in the in vivo brain, and experimental freedom is often insufficient to enable informative manipulations. In vitro preparations (brain slices or cultures of dissociated neurons) offer much better accessibility and reduced complexity and have yielded valuable new insights into various brain disorders. Both types of preparations have their advantages and limitations with regard to lifespan, preservation of in vivo brain structure, composition of cell types, and the link to behavioral outcome is often unclear in in vitro models. While these limitations hamper general usage of in vitro preparations to study, e.g., brain development, in vitro preparations are very useful to study neuronal and synaptic functioning under pathologic conditions. This chapter addresses several brain disorders, focusing on neuronal and synaptic functioning, as well as network aspects. Recent progress in the fields of brain circulation disorders, excitability disorders, and memory disorders will be discussed, as well as limitations of current in vitro models.