In Vivo Blood Velocity Vector Imaging Using Adaptive Velocity Compounding in the Carotid Artery Bifurcation

Anne E.C.M. Saris*, Hendrik H.G. Hansen, Stein Fekkes, Jan Menssen, Maartje M. Nillesen, Chris L. de Korte

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)
26 Downloads (Pure)


Visualization and quantification of blood flow are considered important for early detection of atherosclerosis and patient-specific diagnosis and intervention. As conventional Doppler imaging is limited to 1-D velocity estimates, 2-D and 3-D techniques are being developed. We introduce an adaptive velocity compounding technique that estimates the 2-D velocity vector field using predominantly axial displacements estimated by speckle tracking from dual-angle plane wave acquisitions. Straight-vessel experiments with a 7.8-MHz linear array transducer connected to a Verasonics Vantage ultrasound system revealed that the technique performed with a maximum velocity magnitude bias and angle bias of –3.7% (2.8% standard deviation)and –0.16° (0.41° standard deviation), respectively. In vivo, complex flow patterns were visualized in two healthy and three diseased carotid arteries and quantified using a vector complexity measure that increased with increasing wall irregularity. This measure could potentially be a relevant clinical parameter which might aid in early detection of atherosclerosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1691-1707
Number of pages17
JournalUltrasound in medicine and biology
Issue number7
Early online date9 May 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2019


  • Atherosclerosis
  • Blood velocity estimation
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Carotid artery
  • Complex flow
  • Doppler imaging
  • Plane wave imaging
  • Vascular ultrasound
  • Vector velocity imaging
  • Velocity compounding
  • n/a OA procedure


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