Increasing returns and marketing strategy in the twenty‐first century: Nokia versus Microsoft versus Linux

Chong Ju Choi, Carla C.J.M. Millar-Schijf, Robert Ting-Jieh Chu, Ron Berger

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    1 Citation (Scopus)


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop further the concept of increasing returns in technology industries, including social and critical mass factors. The paper applies this framework to the twenty‐first century with the example of the three‐way competition among Nokia, Microsoft and Linux for the global mobile software standards competition.

    Design/methodology/approach: A multidisciplinary and conceptual methodology was used, integrating theories from economics, marketing, technology, innovation, sociology and psychology.

    Findings: The study finds that increasing returns frameworks need to combine technology as well as social and psychology effects to reflect the dynamics of global competition in the twenty‐first century.

    Originality/value: This paper illustrates how a multidisciplinary and integrated approach to analysing increasing returns and a critical mass framework can provide a richer and more holistic analysis of global competition, including Nokia, Microsoft and Linux, in the global competition for mobile software in the twenty‐first century.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)295-301
    Number of pages7
    JournalJournal of business & industrial marketing
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - 2007



    • Rate of return
    • Marketing strategy
    • World economy
    • Mobile communication systems

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