In order to assess the performance of advanced acoustic absorbing materials the acoustic impedance should be determined with high accuracy, especially, in presence of a grazing flow. This paper presents an analytical methodology for the grazing flow acoustic impedance eduction, based on a two-port representation of an acoustic system. This procedure is dedicated to the frequency range below the cut-on frequency of the transversal duct modes and its major appeal refers to a reduced number of microphones and the experimental rig simplicity. The methodology is verified by comparison with acoustic finite element simulations. Experiments are performed on two liner configurations and the educed impedance is compared with reference results obtained with a different approach at another test rig, and shows good agreement. A sensitivity analysis on the influence of the input parameters is carried out showing the influence of the rigid-/impedance wall transition effects, flow Mach number, number of microphones and microphone positioning accuracy.
De Santana, L. D., De Roeck, W., & Desmet, W. (2014). Indirect acoustic impedance eduction in presence of flow based on an analytical two-port formulation. Mechanical systems and signal processing, 388-403. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymssp.2014.02.016