Background. There is an increased practice of using value clarification exercises in decision aids that aim to improve shared decision making. Our objective was to systematically review to which extent conjoint analysis (CA) is used to elicit individual preferences for clinical decision support. We aimed to identify the common practices in the selection of attributes and levels, the design of choice tasks, and the instrument used to clarify values.
Methods. We searched Scopus, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science to identify studies that developed a CA exercise to elicit individual patients’ preferences related to medical decisions. We extracted data on the above-mentioned items.
Results. Eight studies were identified. Studies included a fixed set of 4–8 attributes, which were predetermined by interviews, focus groups, or literature review. All studies used adaptive conjoint analysis (ACA) for their choice task design. Furthermore, all studies provided patients with their preference results in real time, although the type of outcome that was presented to patients differed (attribute importance or treatment scores). Among studies, patients were positive about the ACA exercise, whereas time and effort needed from clinicians to facilitate the ACA exercise were identified as the main barriers to implementation.
Discussion. There is only limited published use of CA exercises in shared decision making. Most studies resembled each other in design choices made, but patients received different feedback among studies. Further research should focus on the feedback patients want to receive and how the CA results fit within the patient–physician dialogue.
- Clinical decision making
- Conjoint analysis
- Shared decision making
- Values clarification exercises
- Values clarification methods
- Adaptive conjoint analysis