Objective: This study sought to quantify EndoAnchor (Medtronic Vascular, Santa Rosa, Calif) penetration into the aortic wall in patients undergoing endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and to assess predictors of successful penetration and its relationship to postprocedural type IA endoleak.
Methods: A subset of patients from the Aneurysm Treatment Using the Heli-FX Aortic Securement System Global Registry (ANCHOR) were included if they met the following criteria: the indication for EndoAnchor use was to treat a type IA endoleak, and postprocedure contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans of sufficient quality were available for core laboratory review. Patients undergoing implantation of cuffs or stents during the EndoAnchor implantation procedure were excluded. Baseline anatomic characteristics were recorded. The cohort was divided into patients with and without persistent type IA endoleaks at the first postoperative CT scan. Penetration of each EndoAnchor measured on this CT scan was defined as good penetration when the EndoAnchor penetrated ≥2 mm into the aortic wall, borderline penetration when EndoAnchor penetration was <2 mm or a gap remained between the endograft and aortic wall, or no penetration when the EndoAnchor did not penetrate into the aortic wall. Differences between the groups were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test or Fisher exact test. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify independent predictors of EndoAnchor penetration, and procedural success was defined by absence of type IA endoleak.
Results: Eighty-six patients of the primary (n = 61 [71%]) and revision (n = 25 [29%]) arms of the ANCHOR registry were included. There were 53 (62%) without and 33 (38%) with persistent type IA endoleaks on the first postprocedural CT scan. The median number of EndoAnchors with good penetration was significantly greater in the cohort without endoleaks, 4 (interquartile range, 3-5) vs 3 (interquartile range, 1.5-4), respectively (P =.002). A multivariate model for EndoAnchor penetration identified use of a Medtronic Endurant endograft as a factor associated with good penetration (P =.001), whereas poor penetration was associated with a larger aortic neck diameter 10 mm distal to the lowest renal artery (P <.001) and greater proximal neck calcium thickness (P =.004). EndoAnchor penetration was the only variable that attained significance (P <.001) in the multivariate model for successful treatment of a type IA endoleak.
Conclusions: Adequate EndoAnchor penetration into the aortic wall is less likely when the aortic neck diameter is large or when the neck contains significant mural calcium. No penetration of the EndoAnchor was the only factor predictive of postprocedural type IA endoleak. This study stresses the importance of careful selection of patients based on preoperative assessment of the infrarenal neck on CT angiography and emphasizes careful deployment of EndoAnchors into the aortic wall to improve successful treatment of type IA endoleaks.
- Abdominal aortic aneurysm
- Aneurysm neck
- Endovascular aneurysm repair
- Type IA endoleak