Influence of Bubbles on the Energy Conversion Efficiency of Electrochemical Reactors

Andrea Angulo, Peter van der Linde, H. Gardeniers, Miguel A. Modestino, David Fernandez Rivas

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

404 Citations (Scopus)
776 Downloads (Pure)


Bubbles are known to influence energy and mass transfer in gas-evolving electrodes. However, we lack a detailed understanding on the intricate dependencies between bubble evolution processes and electrochemical phenomena.
This review discusses our current knowledge on the effects of bubbles on electrochemical systems with the aim to identify opportunities and motivate future research in this area. We first provide a base background on the physics of bubble evolution as it relates to electrochemical processes. Then we outline how
bubbles affect energy efficiency of electrode processes, detailing the bubble-induced impacts on activation, ohmic, and concentration overpotentials. Lastly,
we describe different strategies to mitigate losses and how to exploit bubbles
to enhance electrochemical reactions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)555-579
Number of pages25
Issue number3
Early online date3 Feb 2020
Publication statusPublished - 18 Mar 2020


  • bubbles
  • chemical manufacturing
  • electrochemistry
  • energy
  • process intensification


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