Influence of nanoclay-carbon black hybrid fillers on cure and properties of natural rubber compounds

J. Sapkota, M. Poikelispää, A. Das, Wilma K. Dierkes, J. Vuorinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The influence of organically modified nanoclay-carbon black (CB) hybrid filler on the curing behavior of natural rubber (NR) was explored in this investigation. Here an effort was paid to understand the curing kinetics of organomodified nanoclay filled rubber compounds. On the basis of two different types of modified clay, NR nanocomposites were prepared and cured by a conventional vulcanization system. A faster curing rate and lower torque values were found when the modification was done by quaternary ammonium compounds. The activation energy of the rubber curing process decreased with the incorporation of nanoclay. In addition, it was revealed that the quaternary ammonium compounds used as modifier in the clay show a plasticization effect. Additionally, X-ray diffraction studies indicated, that the basal spacing of the clay minerals was increased in both cases after incorporation in the rubber matrix. The dynamic mechanical analysis using a strain sweep mode showed that the Payne effect decreases because of an improved dispersion of CB induced by the presence of nanoclay.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)615-622
JournalPolymer engineering and science
Volume53
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Aug 2013

Fingerprint

Soot
Rubber
Carbon black
Fillers
Curing
Ammonium compounds
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
Clay
Vulcanization
Dynamic mechanical analysis
Clay minerals
Nanocomposites
Torque
Activation energy
X ray diffraction
Kinetics

Keywords

  • METIS-317868
  • IR-101249

Cite this

Sapkota, J. ; Poikelispää, M. ; Das, A. ; Dierkes, Wilma K. ; Vuorinen, J. / Influence of nanoclay-carbon black hybrid fillers on cure and properties of natural rubber compounds. In: Polymer engineering and science. 2013 ; Vol. 53, No. 3. pp. 615-622.
@article{71502a05340a4aafaa7b34da957ace84,
title = "Influence of nanoclay-carbon black hybrid fillers on cure and properties of natural rubber compounds",
abstract = "The influence of organically modified nanoclay-carbon black (CB) hybrid filler on the curing behavior of natural rubber (NR) was explored in this investigation. Here an effort was paid to understand the curing kinetics of organomodified nanoclay filled rubber compounds. On the basis of two different types of modified clay, NR nanocomposites were prepared and cured by a conventional vulcanization system. A faster curing rate and lower torque values were found when the modification was done by quaternary ammonium compounds. The activation energy of the rubber curing process decreased with the incorporation of nanoclay. In addition, it was revealed that the quaternary ammonium compounds used as modifier in the clay show a plasticization effect. Additionally, X-ray diffraction studies indicated, that the basal spacing of the clay minerals was increased in both cases after incorporation in the rubber matrix. The dynamic mechanical analysis using a strain sweep mode showed that the Payne effect decreases because of an improved dispersion of CB induced by the presence of nanoclay.",
keywords = "METIS-317868, IR-101249",
author = "J. Sapkota and M. Poikelisp{\"a}{\"a} and A. Das and Dierkes, {Wilma K.} and J. Vuorinen",
year = "2013",
month = "8",
day = "18",
doi = "10.1002/pen.23297",
language = "English",
volume = "53",
pages = "615--622",
journal = "Polymer engineering and science",
issn = "0032-3888",
publisher = "Wiley",
number = "3",

}

Influence of nanoclay-carbon black hybrid fillers on cure and properties of natural rubber compounds. / Sapkota, J.; Poikelispää, M.; Das, A.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Vuorinen, J.

In: Polymer engineering and science, Vol. 53, No. 3, 18.08.2013, p. 615-622.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Influence of nanoclay-carbon black hybrid fillers on cure and properties of natural rubber compounds

AU - Sapkota, J.

AU - Poikelispää, M.

AU - Das, A.

AU - Dierkes, Wilma K.

AU - Vuorinen, J.

PY - 2013/8/18

Y1 - 2013/8/18

N2 - The influence of organically modified nanoclay-carbon black (CB) hybrid filler on the curing behavior of natural rubber (NR) was explored in this investigation. Here an effort was paid to understand the curing kinetics of organomodified nanoclay filled rubber compounds. On the basis of two different types of modified clay, NR nanocomposites were prepared and cured by a conventional vulcanization system. A faster curing rate and lower torque values were found when the modification was done by quaternary ammonium compounds. The activation energy of the rubber curing process decreased with the incorporation of nanoclay. In addition, it was revealed that the quaternary ammonium compounds used as modifier in the clay show a plasticization effect. Additionally, X-ray diffraction studies indicated, that the basal spacing of the clay minerals was increased in both cases after incorporation in the rubber matrix. The dynamic mechanical analysis using a strain sweep mode showed that the Payne effect decreases because of an improved dispersion of CB induced by the presence of nanoclay.

AB - The influence of organically modified nanoclay-carbon black (CB) hybrid filler on the curing behavior of natural rubber (NR) was explored in this investigation. Here an effort was paid to understand the curing kinetics of organomodified nanoclay filled rubber compounds. On the basis of two different types of modified clay, NR nanocomposites were prepared and cured by a conventional vulcanization system. A faster curing rate and lower torque values were found when the modification was done by quaternary ammonium compounds. The activation energy of the rubber curing process decreased with the incorporation of nanoclay. In addition, it was revealed that the quaternary ammonium compounds used as modifier in the clay show a plasticization effect. Additionally, X-ray diffraction studies indicated, that the basal spacing of the clay minerals was increased in both cases after incorporation in the rubber matrix. The dynamic mechanical analysis using a strain sweep mode showed that the Payne effect decreases because of an improved dispersion of CB induced by the presence of nanoclay.

KW - METIS-317868

KW - IR-101249

U2 - 10.1002/pen.23297

DO - 10.1002/pen.23297

M3 - Article

VL - 53

SP - 615

EP - 622

JO - Polymer engineering and science

JF - Polymer engineering and science

SN - 0032-3888

IS - 3

ER -