The influence of organically modified nanoclay-carbon black (CB) hybrid filler on the curing behavior of natural rubber (NR) was explored in this investigation. Here an effort was paid to understand the curing kinetics of organomodified nanoclay filled rubber compounds. On the basis of two different types of modified clay, NR nanocomposites were prepared and cured by a conventional vulcanization system. A faster curing rate and lower torque values were found when the modification was done by quaternary ammonium compounds. The activation energy of the rubber curing process decreased with the incorporation of nanoclay. In addition, it was revealed that the quaternary ammonium compounds used as modifier in the clay show a plasticization effect. Additionally, X-ray diffraction studies indicated, that the basal spacing of the clay minerals was increased in both cases after incorporation in the rubber matrix. The dynamic mechanical analysis using a strain sweep mode showed that the Payne effect decreases because of an improved dispersion of CB induced by the presence of nanoclay.
Sapkota, J., Poikelispää, M., Das, A., Dierkes, W. K., & Vuorinen, J. (2013). Influence of nanoclay-carbon black hybrid fillers on cure and properties of natural rubber compounds. Polymer engineering and science, 53(3), 615-622. https://doi.org/10.1002/pen.23297