Influence of silica and silane on the cure behavior in filled SSBR compounds

Anmol Aggarwal, Fabian Grunert, Anke Blume, Sybill Ilisch

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstractAcademic


The crosslinking of elastomers through the vulcanization process creates a three-dimensional network making rubber suitable for many engineering applications. Curing agents are used to chemically link polymer chains during this process, and the extent of crosslinking is known to be measured by the MDR torque. In unfilled compounds, the MDR torque directly correlates with the crosslinking density. Active fillers such as carbon black and silica are added to enhance the properties of elastomers. However, the presence of silica in vulcanizates can affect the MDR torque due to the interference of silica with the crosslinking mechanism of the elastomers. Additionally, the presence of polar hydroxyl groups on silica surface leads to filler flocculation, thus resulting in filler clusters. Also, the adsorption of accelerators on the surface of silica particles can cause a slower and less efficient reaction. Additionally, the presence of silane can result in polymer-silane-silica coupling, leading to more complex reactions. Due to these factors, the cure torque may not necessarily correlate directly with the crosslinking density. To further investigate this, it was examined the contributions of different factors to the cure torque of silica-silane-filled functionalized and non-functionalized SBR compounds, including compound viscosity, filler-filler and filler-polymer interactions, and polymer crosslinking. It was found that at low silica loadings, polymer crosslinking dominates the cure torque, while the contribution of filler-filler interaction to the cure torque increases as the filler loading increases. At filler loadings much above the percolation threshold, the filler network contributes predominantly to the cure torque.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 18 Oct 2023
Event204th Technical Meeting of the Rubber Division ACS, 2023 - Cleveland, United States
Duration: 17 Oct 202319 Oct 2023
Conference number: 204


Conference204th Technical Meeting of the Rubber Division ACS, 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States


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