Temperature gradients in electrodialysis (ED) stacks can potentially enhance the efficiency of charge separation and the selective transport of ions. We have previously investigated temperature gradients in the Ohmic regime but not in the limiting current regime, where diffusion of ions towards the membrane determines the transport rate and temperature gradients potentially have the largest influence. In this research, commercial ion exchange membranes (FAS and FKS, FUMATECH, Germany) are used for the investigation of temperature gradients in the limiting current regime. In contrast to the Ohmic regime, we find that heating the diluted stream increases the current obtained (at a constant applied potential) when compared to heating the concentrate stream in systems containing monovalent KCl and NaCl solutions. For mixtures of mono- and divalent ions, the temperature gradient has a larger influence on the selectivity of the separation. If the desalinated stream is heated, divalent Mg2+ ions show a higher transport than the monovalent K+ and Na+ ions. This is due to the enhanced competitive transport of the mono- and divalent ions under the application of a temperature gradient. These results show the potential application and relevance of temperature gradients to enhance the selective separation of mono- and divalent ions.
- Limiting current
- Mono- and divalent ions
- Temperature gradients
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Influence of temperature gradients on mono- and divalent ion transport in electrodialysis at limiting currents