Infrared 3D Thermography for Inflammation Detection in Diabetic Foot Disease: A Proof of Concept

Rob F.M. van Doremalen*, Jaap J. van Netten, Jeff G. van Baal, Miriam M.R. Vollenbroek-Hutten, Ferdinand van der Heijden

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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    Abstract

    Background: Thermal assessment of the plantar surface of the foot using spot thermometers and thermal imaging has been proven effective in diabetic foot ulcer prevention. However, with traditional cameras this is limited to single spots or a two-dimensional (2D) view of the plantar side of foot, where only 50% of the ulcers occur. To improve ulcer detection, the view has to be extended beyond 2D. Our aim is to explore for proof of concept the combination of three-dimensional (3D) models with thermal imaging for inflammation detection in diabetic foot disease.

    Method: From eight participants with a current diabetic foot ulcer we simultaneously acquired a 3D foot model and three thermal infrared images using a high-resolution medical 3D imaging system aligned with three smartphone-based thermal infrared cameras. Using spatial transformations, we aimed to map thermal images onto the 3D model, to create the 3D visualizations. Expert clinicians assessed these for quality and face validity as +, +/-, -.

    Results: We could replace the texture maps (color definitions) of the 3D model with the thermal infrared images and created the first-ever 3D thermographs of the diabetic foot. We then converted these models to 3D PDF-files compatible with the hospital IT environment. Face validity was assessed as + in six and +/- in two cases.

    Conclusions: We have provided a proof of concept for the creation of clinically useful 3D thermal foot images to assess the diabetic foot skin temperature in 3D in a hospital IT environment. Future developments are expected to improve the image-processing techniques to result in easier, handheld applications and driving further research.

    Original languageEnglish
    JournalJournal of diabetes science and technology
    DOIs
    Publication statusE-pub ahead of print/First online - 14 Jun 2019

    Fingerprint

    Foot Diseases
    Diabetic Foot
    Hot Temperature
    Inflammation
    Infrared radiation
    Foot
    Infrared imaging
    Cameras
    Reproducibility of Results
    Ulcer
    Thermometers
    Smartphones
    Imaging systems
    Skin Temperature
    Skin
    Image processing
    Diagnostic Imaging
    Visualization
    Textures
    Color

    Keywords

    • UT-Hybrid-D
    • Diabetic foot
    • Foot ulcer
    • Temperature
    • Thermal infrared
    • Three-dimensional
    • 3D thermography

    Cite this

    @article{34a10838c024493295d0d71339baf3db,
    title = "Infrared 3D Thermography for Inflammation Detection in Diabetic Foot Disease: A Proof of Concept",
    abstract = "Background: Thermal assessment of the plantar surface of the foot using spot thermometers and thermal imaging has been proven effective in diabetic foot ulcer prevention. However, with traditional cameras this is limited to single spots or a two-dimensional (2D) view of the plantar side of foot, where only 50{\%} of the ulcers occur. To improve ulcer detection, the view has to be extended beyond 2D. Our aim is to explore for proof of concept the combination of three-dimensional (3D) models with thermal imaging for inflammation detection in diabetic foot disease.Method: From eight participants with a current diabetic foot ulcer we simultaneously acquired a 3D foot model and three thermal infrared images using a high-resolution medical 3D imaging system aligned with three smartphone-based thermal infrared cameras. Using spatial transformations, we aimed to map thermal images onto the 3D model, to create the 3D visualizations. Expert clinicians assessed these for quality and face validity as +, +/-, -.Results: We could replace the texture maps (color definitions) of the 3D model with the thermal infrared images and created the first-ever 3D thermographs of the diabetic foot. We then converted these models to 3D PDF-files compatible with the hospital IT environment. Face validity was assessed as + in six and +/- in two cases.Conclusions: We have provided a proof of concept for the creation of clinically useful 3D thermal foot images to assess the diabetic foot skin temperature in 3D in a hospital IT environment. Future developments are expected to improve the image-processing techniques to result in easier, handheld applications and driving further research.",
    keywords = "UT-Hybrid-D, Diabetic foot, Foot ulcer, Temperature, Thermal infrared, Three-dimensional, 3D thermography",
    author = "{van Doremalen}, {Rob F.M.} and {van Netten}, {Jaap J.} and {van Baal}, {Jeff G.} and Vollenbroek-Hutten, {Miriam M.R.} and {van der Heijden}, Ferdinand",
    year = "2019",
    month = "6",
    day = "14",
    doi = "10.1177/1932296819854062",
    language = "English",
    journal = "Journal of diabetes science and technology",
    issn = "1932-2968",
    publisher = "Diabetes Technology Society",

    }

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    T1 - Infrared 3D Thermography for Inflammation Detection in Diabetic Foot Disease

    T2 - A Proof of Concept

    AU - van Doremalen, Rob F.M.

    AU - van Netten, Jaap J.

    AU - van Baal, Jeff G.

    AU - Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam M.R.

    AU - van der Heijden, Ferdinand

    PY - 2019/6/14

    Y1 - 2019/6/14

    N2 - Background: Thermal assessment of the plantar surface of the foot using spot thermometers and thermal imaging has been proven effective in diabetic foot ulcer prevention. However, with traditional cameras this is limited to single spots or a two-dimensional (2D) view of the plantar side of foot, where only 50% of the ulcers occur. To improve ulcer detection, the view has to be extended beyond 2D. Our aim is to explore for proof of concept the combination of three-dimensional (3D) models with thermal imaging for inflammation detection in diabetic foot disease.Method: From eight participants with a current diabetic foot ulcer we simultaneously acquired a 3D foot model and three thermal infrared images using a high-resolution medical 3D imaging system aligned with three smartphone-based thermal infrared cameras. Using spatial transformations, we aimed to map thermal images onto the 3D model, to create the 3D visualizations. Expert clinicians assessed these for quality and face validity as +, +/-, -.Results: We could replace the texture maps (color definitions) of the 3D model with the thermal infrared images and created the first-ever 3D thermographs of the diabetic foot. We then converted these models to 3D PDF-files compatible with the hospital IT environment. Face validity was assessed as + in six and +/- in two cases.Conclusions: We have provided a proof of concept for the creation of clinically useful 3D thermal foot images to assess the diabetic foot skin temperature in 3D in a hospital IT environment. Future developments are expected to improve the image-processing techniques to result in easier, handheld applications and driving further research.

    AB - Background: Thermal assessment of the plantar surface of the foot using spot thermometers and thermal imaging has been proven effective in diabetic foot ulcer prevention. However, with traditional cameras this is limited to single spots or a two-dimensional (2D) view of the plantar side of foot, where only 50% of the ulcers occur. To improve ulcer detection, the view has to be extended beyond 2D. Our aim is to explore for proof of concept the combination of three-dimensional (3D) models with thermal imaging for inflammation detection in diabetic foot disease.Method: From eight participants with a current diabetic foot ulcer we simultaneously acquired a 3D foot model and three thermal infrared images using a high-resolution medical 3D imaging system aligned with three smartphone-based thermal infrared cameras. Using spatial transformations, we aimed to map thermal images onto the 3D model, to create the 3D visualizations. Expert clinicians assessed these for quality and face validity as +, +/-, -.Results: We could replace the texture maps (color definitions) of the 3D model with the thermal infrared images and created the first-ever 3D thermographs of the diabetic foot. We then converted these models to 3D PDF-files compatible with the hospital IT environment. Face validity was assessed as + in six and +/- in two cases.Conclusions: We have provided a proof of concept for the creation of clinically useful 3D thermal foot images to assess the diabetic foot skin temperature in 3D in a hospital IT environment. Future developments are expected to improve the image-processing techniques to result in easier, handheld applications and driving further research.

    KW - UT-Hybrid-D

    KW - Diabetic foot

    KW - Foot ulcer

    KW - Temperature

    KW - Thermal infrared

    KW - Three-dimensional

    KW - 3D thermography

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