During the initial stage of operation, membrance performance in hyperfiltration experiments will be time dependent. For swollen ionic membranes, fluxes show an initial decrease while rejections initially increase in magnitude. These phenomena, also referred to as compaction, can be described by a model proposed here in which the wet membrane thickness decreases in time as a combined response to stepwise changed process parameters pressure and concentration. The response has been described by a linear first-order differential equation and worked out by use of known concepts of flux and rejection for swollen ionic membranes. Experimental data appear to be in good agreement with model predictions.
van der Velden, P. M., & Smolders, C. A. (1976). Initial flux decline and initial rejection increase for swollen ionic membranes. Journal of applied polymer science, 20(5), 1153-1164. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.1976.070200502