Innate Immunity and Pathogenesis of Biliary Atresia

Ana Ortiz-Perez, Bryan Donnelly, Haley Temple, Greg Tiao, Ruchi Bansal, Sujit Kumar Mohanty*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Biliary atresia (BA) is a devastating fibro-inflammatory disease characterized by the obstruction of extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts in infants that can have fatal consequences, when not treated in a timely manner. It is the most common indication of pediatric liver transplantation worldwide and the development of new therapies, to alleviate the need of surgical intervention, has been hindered due to its complexity and lack of understanding of the disease pathogenesis. For that reason, significant efforts have been made toward the development of experimental models and strategies to understand the etiology and disease mechanisms and to identify novel therapeutic targets. The only characterized model of BA, using a Rhesus Rotavirus Type A infection of newborn BALB/c mice, has enabled the identification of key cellular and molecular targets involved in epithelial injury and duct obstruction. However, the establishment of an unleashed chronic inflammation followed by a progressive pathological wound healing process remains poorly understood. Like T cells, macrophages can adopt different functional programs [pro-inflammatory (M1) and resolutive (M2) macrophages] and influence the surrounding cytokine environment and the cell response to injury. In this review, we provide an overview of the immunopathogenesis of BA, discuss the implication of innate immunity in the disease pathogenesis and highlight their suitability as therapeutic targets.

Original languageEnglish
Article number329
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Volume11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Feb 2020

Keywords

  • biliary atresia
  • innate immunity
  • liver fibrosis
  • macrophages
  • rotavirus

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