From polysulfone as polymer, integrally skinned hollow fiber membranes with a defect-free top layer have been spun. The spinning process described here differs from the traditional dry-wet spinning process where the fiber enters the coagulation bath after passing a certain air gap. In the present process, a specially designed tripple orifice spinneret has been used that allows spinning without contact with the air. This spinneret makes it possible to use two different nonsolvents subsequently. During the contact time with the first nonsolvent, the polymer concentration in the top layer is enhanced, after which the second coagulation bath causes further phase separation and solidification of the ultimate hollow fiber membrane. Top layers of ± 1 m have been obtained, supported by a porous sublayer. The effect of spinning parameters that might influence the membrane structure and, therefore, the membrane properties, are studied by scanning electron microscopy and pervaporation experiments, using a mixture of 80 wt % acetic acid and 20 wt % water at a temperature of 70°C. Higher fluxes as a result of a lower resistance in the substructure could be obtained by adding glycerol to the spinning dope, by decreasing the polymer concentration, and by adding a certain amount of solvent to the bore liquid. Other parameters studied are the type of the solvent in the spinning dope and the type of the first nonsolvent.
Koops, G. H., Nolten-Oude Hendrikman, J. A. M., Nolten, J. A. M., Mulder, M. H. V., Smolders, C. A., & Smolders, C. A. (1994). Integrally Skinned Polysulfone Hollow Fiber Membranes for Pervaporation. Journal of applied polymer science, 1994(54), 385-404. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.1994.070540313