Integrated scheduling of drayage and long-haul operations in synchromodal transport

Arturo E. Pérez Rivera* (Corresponding Author), Martijn R.K. Mes

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)
131 Downloads (Pure)


We study the problem of the integrated scheduling of drayage operations and long-haul transport in synchromodality. Although different in time span and characteristics of execution, these two processes have an impact on each other and their interaction has a direct influence on the overall performance of the transport network over time. We propose a simulation based integration of a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming model for the drayage operations and a Markov Decision Process model for the long-haul transport. We analyze the interfaces between these models, outline the challenges of integrating them, and design a heuristic approach to the simulation based integration. In a series of numerical experiments, we evaluate the cost savings compared to a non-integrated approach, using various transport network configurations. We show that our approach achieves average cost savings between 4 and 24% on networks with a majority of pre-haulage freights. Furthermore, we discuss limitations of our model and experiments, and provide guidelines for further research for the integrated scheduling of drayage and long-haul operations in synchromodal transport.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)763-806
Number of pages44
JournalFlexible services and manufacturing journal
Issue number3
Early online date27 Feb 2019
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sept 2019


  • UT-Hybrid-D
  • Drayage
  • Long-haul
  • Matheuristic
  • Synchromodal transport
  • Approximate Dynamic Programming


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