Needle insertion procedures are commonly used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In this paper, an image- guided control system is developed to robotically steer flexible nee- dles with an asymmetric tip. Knowledge about needle deflection is required for accurate steering. Two different models to predict nee- dle deflection are presented. The first is a kinematics-based model, and the second model predicts needle deflection that is based on the mechanics of needle–tissue interaction. Both models predict deflection of needles that undergo multiple bends. The maximum targeting errors of the kinematics-based and the mechanics-based models for 110-mm insertion distance using a φ 0.5-mm needle are 0.8 and 1.7 mm, respectively. The kinematics-based model is used in the proposed image-guided control system. The control system accounts for target motion during the insertion procedure by detecting the target position in each image frame. Five experi- mental cases are presented to validate the real-time control system using both camera and ultrasound images as feedback. The ex- perimental results show that the targeting errors of camera and ultrasound image-guided steering toward a moving target are 0.35 and 0.42 mm, respectively. The targeting accuracy of the algorithm is sufficient to reach the smallest lesions (φ 2 mm) that can be de- tected using the state-of-the-art ultrasound imaging systems.
Abayazid, M., Roesthuis, R., Reilink, R., & Misra, S. (2013). Integrating deflection models and image feedback for real-time flexible needle steering. IEEE transactions on robotics, 29(2), 542-553. https://doi.org/10.1109/TRO.2012.2230991