Integrating remote sensing and street view imagery for mapping slums

Abbas Najmi, C.M. Gevaert*, D. Kohli, M. Kuffer, J. Pratomo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Mapping slums is vital for monitoring the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) indicators. In the absence of reliable data, Remote Sensing (RS)-based approaches, particularly the Deep Learning (DL) methods, have gained recognition and high accuracies for slum mapping. However, using RS alone has its limitation in complex urban environments. Previous studies showed the added value of combining ground-level information with RS. Therefore, this research aims to integrate Remote Sensing Imagery (RSI) and Street View Images (SVI) for slum mapping. Jakarta city is the study area representing the challenge of distinguishing between slum and non-slum kampungs, and these kampungs accommodate approximately 60% of the population of Jakarta. This research compares the mapping results obtained by four DL networks: FCN-DK6 used only RSI, a VGG16 used only SVI, and two networks combined RSI and SVI (FCN-DK6-i and Modified FCN-DK6). Further, the Modified FCN-DK6 network was explored by integrating SVI at each convolutional layer, i.e., Modified FCN-DK6_1, Modified FCN-DK6_2, Modified FCN-DK6_3, Modified FCN-DK6_4, and Modified FCN-DK6_5. Experimental results demonstrate that combining RSI and SVI improves the accuracy, depending on how and at what level in the FCN network they are integrated. The Modified FCN-DK6_2 outperforms the rest in Modified FCN-DK6 experiments and FCN-DK6-i.
Original languageEnglish
Article number631
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalISPRS international journal of geo-information
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 19 Dec 2022


  • slum mapping
  • remote sensing images
  • street view images
  • deep learning
  • fully convolutional networks
  • feature extraction
  • spatial interpolation


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