Integrating renewables in distribution grids: Storage, regulation and the interaction of different stakeholders in future grids

Stefan Nykamp

Research output: ThesisPhD Thesis - Research UT, graduation UT

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In recent years, the transition of the power supply chain towards a sustainable system based on “green‿ electricity generation out of renewable energy sources (RES-E) has become a main challenge for grid operators and further stakeholders in the power system. To enable the evaluation of new concepts for the integration of RES-E, first the feed-in characteristics of photovoltaic, wind and biomass generators located in a distribution grid area and based on numerous measured feed-in data are studied in this thesis. The achieved insights from the feed-in profiles can be used for the dimensioning of grid assets. Furthermore, the results are useful for the evaluation of congestion management or for the dimensioning of storage assets in distribution grids. The latter aspect is analyzed in detail such that suitable storage characteristics for an introduction in the grid are determined. An economic approach is presented to derive break-even points for storage assets as a substitute to conventional reinforcements. For a case study from a real world low voltage grid with reinforcement needs, these break-even points are determined and the main influencing parameters are evaluated. A further important question in this context concerns the role DSOs may play with the operation of decentralized storage assets since several stakeholders may be interested in using the flexibility provided by these assets. This unclear responsibility also applies to the steering of adjustable consumption devices such as electric heat pumps or electric cars. For decentralized storage assets as well as heat pump appliances, optimal operation modes based on the optimization objectives for a DSO and a trader are derived. It is shown based on real world data that choosing a ‘copperplate’ scenario is not only technically insufficient for a global balance of the consumption and generation. It may even be harmful for the society from an welfare economic point of view when not taking local grid restrictions into account. Furthermore, it is investigated in this thesis whether or not innovative investments from a grid operators’ perspective are incentivized by the grid regulation method. As shown, the regulation of grids needs to be adjusted to incentivize innovations.
Original languageEnglish
  • Hurink, Johann L., Supervisor
  • Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria, Supervisor
Award date18 Oct 2013
Place of PublicationEnschede
Print ISBNs978-90-365-0057-9
Publication statusPublished - 18 Oct 2013


  • EWI-23851


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