Integration of Solar Cells on Top of CMOS Chips Part I: a-Si Solar Cells

J. Lu, Alexeij Y. Kovalgin, Karine H.M. van der Werf, Ruud E.I. Schropp, Jurriaan Schmitz

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    We present the monolithic integration of deepsubmicrometer complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) microchips with a-Si:H solar cells. Solar cells are manufactured directly on the CMOS chips. The microchips maintain comparable electronic performance, and the solar cells show efficiency values above 7%. The yield of photovoltaic cells on planarized CMOS chips is 92%. This integration allows integrated energy harvesting using established process technologies and, as such, is an important step toward wireless autonomous microsystems (i.e., “smart dust‿).
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2014-2021
    Number of pages8
    JournalIEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2011


    • photovoltaic (PV) cells
    • monolithic integration
    • solar cells
    • EWI-20362
    • METIS-277732
    • complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS)
    • Above integrated circuit (IC)
    • Energy harvesting
    • amorphous Si (a-Si)
    • Ubiquitous Computing
    • energy scavenging
    • IR-77759


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