Interaction between low-level jets and wind farms in a stable atmospheric boundary layer

Srinidhi N. Gadde*, Richard J.A.M. Stevens*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)
210 Downloads (Pure)


Low-level jets (LLJs) are the wind maxima in the lower regions of the atmosphere with a high wind energy potential. Here we use large-eddy simulations to study the effect of LLJ height on the flow dynamics in a wind farm with 10 × 4 turbines. We change the LLJ height and atmospheric thermal stratification by varying the surface cooling rate. We find that the first row power production is higher in the presence of a LLJ compared to a neutral reference case without LLJ. Besides, we show that the first row power production increases with decreasing LLJ height. Due to the higher turbulence intensity, the wind turbine wakes recover faster in a neutral boundary layer than in a stably stratified one. However, for strong thermal stratification with a low-height LLJ, the wake recovery can be faster than for the neutral reference case as energy can be entrained from the LLJ. Flow visualizations reveal that under stable stratification the growth of wind farm's internal boundary layer is restricted and the wind flows around the wind farm. Wind farms extract energy from LLJs through wake meandering and turbulent entrainment depending on the LLJ height. Both effects are advantageous for wake recovery, which is beneficial for the performance of downwind turbines. This finding is confirmed by an energy budget analysis, which reveals a significant increase in the kinetic energy flux in the presence of a LLJ. The jet strength reduces as it passes through consecutive turbine rows. For strong stratification, the combined effect of buoyancy destruction and turbulence dissipation is larger than the turbulent entrainment. Therefore, the power production of turbines in the back of the wind farm is relatively low for strong atmospheric stratifications. We find that the pronounced wind veer in stably stratified boundary layers creates asymmetry in the available wind resource, which can only be studied in finite-size wind farm simulations. We emphasize that spanwise-infinite wind farm simulations may underpredict wind farm performance as the additional beneficial effect of LLJ cannot be observed.
Original languageEnglish
Article number014603
JournalPhysical review fluids
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jan 2021


  • Wind farm
  • Wind turbine
  • Low-level jet
  • Large eddy simulations
  • Wind energy
  • Renewable energy
  • Fluid dynamics
  • Fluid mechanics
  • Atmospheric boundary layer


Dive into the research topics of 'Interaction between low-level jets and wind farms in a stable atmospheric boundary layer'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this