We have integrated single molecule fluorescence microscopy imaging into an optical tweezers set-up and studied the force extension behavior of individual DNA molecules in the presence of various YOYO-1 and YO-PRO-1 concentrations. The fluorescence modality was used to record fluorescent images during the stretching and relaxation cycle. Force extension curves recorded in the presence of either dye did not show the overstretching transition that is characteristic for bare DNA. Using the modified wormlike chain model to curve-fit the force extension data revealed a contour length increase of 6% and 30%, respectively, in the presence of YO-PRO-1 and YOYO-1 at 100 nM. The fluorescence images recorded simultaneously showed that the number of bound dye molecules increased as the DNA molecule was stretched and decreased again as the force on the complex was lowered. The binding constants and binding site sizes for YO-PRO-1 and YOYO-1 were determined as a function of the force. The rate of YO-PRO-1 binding and unbinding was found to be 2 orders of magnitude larger than that for YOYO-1. A kinetic model is proposed to explain this observation.
Murade, C. U., Subramaniam, V., Otto, C., & Bennink, M. L. (2009). Interaction of oxazole yellow dyes with DNA studied with hybrid optical tweezers and fluorescence microscopy. Biophysical journal, 97, 835-843. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2009.05.024