Internal Jugular Vein Geometry Under Multiple Inclination Angles with 3D Low-Field MRI in Healthy Volunteers

Jordy K. van Zandwijk*, Koen M. Kuijer, Chrit M. Stassen, Bernard ten Haken, Frank F.J. Simonis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
51 Downloads (Pure)


Background: Cerebral venous pathways are subjected to geometrical and patency changes due to body position. The internal jugular veins (IJVs) are the main venous drainage pathway in supine position. Their patency and geometry should be evaluated under different body inclination angles over a three-dimensional (3D) volume in the healthy situation to better understand pathological cases. Purpose: To investigate whether positional changes in the body can affect the geometrical properties and patency of the venous system. Study Type: Prospective. Population: 15 healthy volunteers, of which seven males and median age 22 years in a range of 19–59. Field Strength/Sequence: A 0.25-T tiltable MRI system was used to scan volunteers in 90° (sitting position), 69°, 45°, 21°, and 0° (supine position) in the transverse plane with the top at vertebra C2. A gradient echo sequence was used. Assessment: Three observers assessed IJVs on patency and created automatic centerlines from which diameter and patency were analysed perpendicular to the vessel at every 4 mm starting at the level of C2. Statistical Tests: A Student's t test was used to find statistical difference (p < 0.05) in average IJV diameters per inclination angle. Results: The amount of fully collapsed IJVs increased from 33% to 93% (left IJV) and 14% to 80% (right IJV) when increasing the inclination angle from 0° to 90°. In both IJVs, the mean diameter (±SD) of the open vessels was significantly higher at 0° than 90° with 6.3 ± 0.5 mm vs. 4.4 ± 0.1 mm (left IJV) and 6.6 ± 0.6 mm vs. 4.3 ± 0.4 mm (right IJV). Data Conclusion: Tiltable low-field MRI can be used to assess IJV geometry and its associated venous pathways in 3D under multiple inclination angles. Next to a higher amount of collapsed vessels, the average diameter of noncollapsed vessels decreases with increasing inclination angles for both left and right IJVs. Level of Evidence: 2. Technical Efficacy Stage: 1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1302-1308
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of magnetic resonance imaging
Issue number5
Early online date24 Mar 2022
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • body position
  • internal jugular vein
  • tiltable MRI
  • venous collapse
  • venous imaging
  • UT-Hybrid-D


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