Intracerebral Hemorrhage Segmentation on Noncontrast Computed Tomography Using a Masked Loss Function U-Net Approach

Nadine A. Coorens, Kevin Groot Lipman, Sanjith P. Krishnam, Can Ozan Tan, Lejla Alic, Rajiv Gupta*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Objective Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume is a strong predictor of outcome in patients presenting with acute hemorrhagic stroke. It is necessary to segment the hematoma for ICH volume estimation and for computerized extraction of features, such as spot sign, texture parameters, or extravasated iodine content at dual-energy computed tomography. Manual and semiautomatic segmentation methods to delineate the hematoma are tedious, user dependent, and require trained personnel. This article presents a convolutional neural network to automatically delineate ICH from noncontrast computed tomography scans of the head. Methods A model combining a U-Net architecture with a masked loss function was trained on standard noncontrast computed tomography images that were down sampled to 256 × 256 size. Data augmentation was applied to prevent overfitting, and the loss score was calculated using the soft Dice loss function. The Dice coefficient and the Hausdorff distance were computed to quantitatively evaluate the segmentation performance of the model, together with the sensitivity and specificity to determine the ICH detection accuracy. Results The results demonstrate a median Dice coefficient of 75.9% and Hausdorff distance of 2.65 pixels in segmentation performance, with a detection sensitivity of 77.0% and specificity of 96.2%. Conclusions The proposed masked loss U-Net is accurate in the automatic segmentation of ICH. Future research should focus on increasing the detection sensitivity of the model and comparing its performance with other model architectures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)93-101
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2023


  • Brain extraction mask
  • Convolutional neural model
  • Dice coefficient
  • Hemorrhagic stroke
  • 2023 OA procedure


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