Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademic


In this introductory chapter the concept of productive time in education is clarified. Major distinctions are allocated and exposed time, and within school time, as compared to teaching and learning outside regular school time. The Carroll model is referred to as a basic theoretical model on how time is expected to interact with student capacity and motivation to learn in producing learning outcomes. The focus of this study is described in terms of further conceptual clarification and a synthesis of research evidence on the effects of time in education, by means of literature review, secondary analyses, and a new meta-analysis.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEffectiveness of time investments in education
EditorsJ Scheerens
Place of PublicationCham
Number of pages5
ISBN (Print)978-3-319-00923-0
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Publication series

NameSpringerBriefs in education


  • IR-87296
  • METIS-297876

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