Investigation of the dynamic properties of on-chip coupled piezo/photodiodes by time-resolved atomic force and Kelvin probe microscopy

Willemijn M. Luiten, Verena M. Van Der Werf, Noureen Raza, Rebecca Saive*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

We have studied the dynamic properties of hybrid devices in which the piezoelectric material lead zirconate titanate is integrated with silicon photodiodes on-chip. Such an integrated system enables direct conversion of light energy into mechanical deformation and motion, opening up new pathways for light propulsion in microrobots and nanorobots. By operating our devices under alternating illumination and simultaneously recording the time-dependent deformation and surface potential, we were able to derive frequency and voltage dependent time constants and phase relations between photovoltage and deformation. We observed that the silicon top contact resistance limits the response time to 6 ms in small area devices in which the capacitance is low. Furthermore, we observed a phase transition at low frequency that seems to be consistent with the occurrence of a negative capacitance. Our method of using time-dependent atomic force and Kelvin probe force microscopy proves to be suitable for the investigation of nanoscale, dynamic properties of light-driven piezo systems and can lead the design of next generation devices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105121
JournalAIP advances
Volume10
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2020

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