Involving Non-Technical Stakeholders in System Architecture Design; a Case-Study on the Cleaning Industry

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There exists a grey area between market-pull and technology-push markets, in which stakeholders are aware of an issue they want solved, yet do not have clear expectations on a solution. This paper presents a method to meaningfully include these stakeholders in a design process, especially if they come from a non-technical background. A combination of Systems Engineering for indirect involvement and a Human Centered Design approach for direct involvement of stakeholders is proposed and evaluated for a case study on technological advancements in the cleaning industry. It was found that both approaches complement each other throughout the problem exploration phase of the design process. Furthermore, a toolbox that can be used with design specialists and other stakeholders alike is presented and evaluated. Recommendations for the use of specific tools and techniques in similar situations are presented based on communication styles and experiences.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication33rd Annual INCOSE International Symposium 15–20 July 2023 — Honolulu, HI
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2023
Event33rd Annual INCOSE International Symposium 2023 - Honolulu, United States
Duration: 15 Jul 202320 Jul 2023
Conference number: 33

Publication series

NameINCOSE International Symposium


Conference33rd Annual INCOSE International Symposium 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • Problem Exploration
  • Human Centered Design Approach
  • Stakeholder Involvement
  • Systems Architecting
  • 2023 OA procedure


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