Ionic strength effects: Tunable nanocrystal distribution in colloidal gold films

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademic

Abstract

The self-assembly of colloidal particles into disordered structures or highly ordered superlattices can be achieved in different ways. Hydrodynamic forces during controlled drying allow control over the deposition process by varying the solvent vapor pressure and temperature, or, more physically, by structuring the substrate. Impressive results have been obtained, for example, with nanocolloidal magnetic particles. In addition, the application of electric and magnetic fields during drying leads to modifications of the deposited structures. To study deposition processes without the influence of hydrodynamic interactions, colloidal superstructures need to be formed prior to evaporation of the solvent. One way to achieve this is by chemical modification of the substrate to induce a specific affinity for the colloidal particles. For a number of different particles, chemical modifications by using either polymers, amino-functionalized and thiol-functionalized monolayers, or even DNA have been described. For example, for gold nanocrystals, there is a strong attractive electrostatic interaction between positively charged NH2 groups on the derivatized substrate and negatively charged citrate groups on the surface of the suspended gold particles. The high surface affinity and the resulting strong bonding of the deposited gold particles to the surface give rise to negligible surface mobility and sticking probability of one. Deposition processes governed by these characteristics can be adequately described as a random sequential adsorption (RSA) process. In RSA simulations, the adsorbing particles are treated as "hard" disks, which are randomly placed on a planar surface. Placement of such a disk is only successful when it does not overlap with any other previously deposited disks. The maximum particle density after an RSA event is markedly lower than that of a hexagonal close-packed monolayer of spherical particles. The saturation coverage has been determined from extensive numerical calculations and is equal to the jamming limit 0jam = 54.7%. However, strong repulsive interactions, for example, because of electrostatic forces, can lead to a considerably lower maximum attainable coverage, in agreement with the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. This will be described in more detail in Electrostatic Interactions in Particle Deposition. In previous work, many investigations into the importance of electrostatic interactions in colloid deposition processes have been described based on results using large particles (diameter > 100 nm). In this paper, we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study ex situ the deposition of colloidal gold nanocrystals (≈13 nm) on Si/SiO2 substrates, derivatized with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). Spatial distributions after saturation of the deposition experiments are analyzed in terms of radial distribution functions, and indicate that the interparticle distance is tunable by varying the ionic strength. The results are shown to be in good quantitative agreement with other experiments on markedly larger particles.
Original languageUndefined
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
EditorsJames A. Schwarz, Cristian I. Contescu, Karol Putyera
PublisherMarcel Dekker
Pages1515-1523
Number of pages3200
ISBN (Print)9780849396397
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2004

Publication series

Name
PublisherMarcel Dekker

Keywords

  • Electrostatic interactions
  • IR-75158
  • Random sequential adsorption
  • Radial distribution function
  • Colloidal suspension
  • METIS-220964
  • Electron microscopy
  • DLVO theory
  • Irreversible deposition
  • Metal nanocrystals

Cite this

Kooij, E. S., Brouwer, E. A. M., Wormeester, H., & Poelsema, B. (2004). Ionic strength effects: Tunable nanocrystal distribution in colloidal gold films. In J. A. Schwarz, C. I. Contescu, & K. Putyera (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (pp. 1515-1523). Marcel Dekker. https://doi.org/10.1081/E-ENN2-120014181
Kooij, Ernst S. ; Brouwer, E.A.M. ; Wormeester, Herbert ; Poelsema, Bene. / Ionic strength effects: Tunable nanocrystal distribution in colloidal gold films. Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. editor / James A. Schwarz ; Cristian I. Contescu ; Karol Putyera. Marcel Dekker, 2004. pp. 1515-1523
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keywords = "Electrostatic interactions, IR-75158, Random sequential adsorption, Radial distribution function, Colloidal suspension, METIS-220964, Electron microscopy, DLVO theory, Irreversible deposition, Metal nanocrystals",
author = "Kooij, {Ernst S.} and E.A.M. Brouwer and Herbert Wormeester and Bene Poelsema",
year = "2004",
doi = "10.1081/E-ENN2-120014181",
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publisher = "Marcel Dekker",
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booktitle = "Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology",
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Kooij, ES, Brouwer, EAM, Wormeester, H & Poelsema, B 2004, Ionic strength effects: Tunable nanocrystal distribution in colloidal gold films. in JA Schwarz, CI Contescu & K Putyera (eds), Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Marcel Dekker, pp. 1515-1523. https://doi.org/10.1081/E-ENN2-120014181

Ionic strength effects: Tunable nanocrystal distribution in colloidal gold films. / Kooij, Ernst S.; Brouwer, E.A.M.; Wormeester, Herbert; Poelsema, Bene.

Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. ed. / James A. Schwarz; Cristian I. Contescu; Karol Putyera. Marcel Dekker, 2004. p. 1515-1523.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademic

TY - CHAP

T1 - Ionic strength effects: Tunable nanocrystal distribution in colloidal gold films

AU - Kooij, Ernst S.

AU - Brouwer, E.A.M.

AU - Wormeester, Herbert

AU - Poelsema, Bene

PY - 2004

Y1 - 2004

N2 - The self-assembly of colloidal particles into disordered structures or highly ordered superlattices can be achieved in different ways. Hydrodynamic forces during controlled drying allow control over the deposition process by varying the solvent vapor pressure and temperature, or, more physically, by structuring the substrate. Impressive results have been obtained, for example, with nanocolloidal magnetic particles. In addition, the application of electric and magnetic fields during drying leads to modifications of the deposited structures. To study deposition processes without the influence of hydrodynamic interactions, colloidal superstructures need to be formed prior to evaporation of the solvent. One way to achieve this is by chemical modification of the substrate to induce a specific affinity for the colloidal particles. For a number of different particles, chemical modifications by using either polymers, amino-functionalized and thiol-functionalized monolayers, or even DNA have been described. For example, for gold nanocrystals, there is a strong attractive electrostatic interaction between positively charged NH2 groups on the derivatized substrate and negatively charged citrate groups on the surface of the suspended gold particles. The high surface affinity and the resulting strong bonding of the deposited gold particles to the surface give rise to negligible surface mobility and sticking probability of one. Deposition processes governed by these characteristics can be adequately described as a random sequential adsorption (RSA) process. In RSA simulations, the adsorbing particles are treated as "hard" disks, which are randomly placed on a planar surface. Placement of such a disk is only successful when it does not overlap with any other previously deposited disks. The maximum particle density after an RSA event is markedly lower than that of a hexagonal close-packed monolayer of spherical particles. The saturation coverage has been determined from extensive numerical calculations and is equal to the jamming limit 0jam = 54.7%. However, strong repulsive interactions, for example, because of electrostatic forces, can lead to a considerably lower maximum attainable coverage, in agreement with the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. This will be described in more detail in Electrostatic Interactions in Particle Deposition. In previous work, many investigations into the importance of electrostatic interactions in colloid deposition processes have been described based on results using large particles (diameter > 100 nm). In this paper, we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study ex situ the deposition of colloidal gold nanocrystals (≈13 nm) on Si/SiO2 substrates, derivatized with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). Spatial distributions after saturation of the deposition experiments are analyzed in terms of radial distribution functions, and indicate that the interparticle distance is tunable by varying the ionic strength. The results are shown to be in good quantitative agreement with other experiments on markedly larger particles.

AB - The self-assembly of colloidal particles into disordered structures or highly ordered superlattices can be achieved in different ways. Hydrodynamic forces during controlled drying allow control over the deposition process by varying the solvent vapor pressure and temperature, or, more physically, by structuring the substrate. Impressive results have been obtained, for example, with nanocolloidal magnetic particles. In addition, the application of electric and magnetic fields during drying leads to modifications of the deposited structures. To study deposition processes without the influence of hydrodynamic interactions, colloidal superstructures need to be formed prior to evaporation of the solvent. One way to achieve this is by chemical modification of the substrate to induce a specific affinity for the colloidal particles. For a number of different particles, chemical modifications by using either polymers, amino-functionalized and thiol-functionalized monolayers, or even DNA have been described. For example, for gold nanocrystals, there is a strong attractive electrostatic interaction between positively charged NH2 groups on the derivatized substrate and negatively charged citrate groups on the surface of the suspended gold particles. The high surface affinity and the resulting strong bonding of the deposited gold particles to the surface give rise to negligible surface mobility and sticking probability of one. Deposition processes governed by these characteristics can be adequately described as a random sequential adsorption (RSA) process. In RSA simulations, the adsorbing particles are treated as "hard" disks, which are randomly placed on a planar surface. Placement of such a disk is only successful when it does not overlap with any other previously deposited disks. The maximum particle density after an RSA event is markedly lower than that of a hexagonal close-packed monolayer of spherical particles. The saturation coverage has been determined from extensive numerical calculations and is equal to the jamming limit 0jam = 54.7%. However, strong repulsive interactions, for example, because of electrostatic forces, can lead to a considerably lower maximum attainable coverage, in agreement with the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. This will be described in more detail in Electrostatic Interactions in Particle Deposition. In previous work, many investigations into the importance of electrostatic interactions in colloid deposition processes have been described based on results using large particles (diameter > 100 nm). In this paper, we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study ex situ the deposition of colloidal gold nanocrystals (≈13 nm) on Si/SiO2 substrates, derivatized with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). Spatial distributions after saturation of the deposition experiments are analyzed in terms of radial distribution functions, and indicate that the interparticle distance is tunable by varying the ionic strength. The results are shown to be in good quantitative agreement with other experiments on markedly larger particles.

KW - Electrostatic interactions

KW - IR-75158

KW - Random sequential adsorption

KW - Radial distribution function

KW - Colloidal suspension

KW - METIS-220964

KW - Electron microscopy

KW - DLVO theory

KW - Irreversible deposition

KW - Metal nanocrystals

U2 - 10.1081/E-ENN2-120014181

DO - 10.1081/E-ENN2-120014181

M3 - Chapter

SN - 9780849396397

SP - 1515

EP - 1523

BT - Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

A2 - Schwarz, James A.

A2 - Contescu, Cristian I.

A2 - Putyera, Karol

PB - Marcel Dekker

ER -

Kooij ES, Brouwer EAM, Wormeester H, Poelsema B. Ionic strength effects: Tunable nanocrystal distribution in colloidal gold films. In Schwarz JA, Contescu CI, Putyera K, editors, Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Marcel Dekker. 2004. p. 1515-1523 https://doi.org/10.1081/E-ENN2-120014181