This study investigates the negative reactions of Dutch viewers to the content of television programs. The results show that a vast majority is sometimes irritated by TV programs, that a somewhat smaller majority is sometimes shocked by the programs, and that one fifth of the viewing population consider certain programs to be intolerable. The most frequently mentioned genres are games, shows, and related entertainment programs, while reality TV (scoring high on all negative reactions), news and current affairs (often shocking), and sex (often intolerable) are primarily evaluated as irritating. It appears that violent and frightening material creates by far the largest category of negative responses. Intimidating behavior worries the viewers most, immediately followed by the violation of privacy. This article also discusses the consequences of these results for broadcasting policy in the Netherlands.
Heuvelman, A., Peeters, A., & van Dijk, J. A. G. M. (2005). Irritating, shocking, and intolerable TV programs: Norms, values, and concerns of viewers in the Netherlands. Communications, 30(3), 325-342. https://doi.org/10.1515/comm.2005.30.3.325