Is Silent External Human–Machine Interface (eHMI) Enough? A Passenger-Centric Study on Effective eHMI for Autonomous Personal Mobility Vehicles in the Field

Hailong Liu*, Yang Li, Zhe Zeg, Hao Cheng, Chen Peng, Takahiro Wada

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Autonomous personal mobility vehicle (APMV) is a miniaturized autonomous vehicle designed for short-distance mobility to everyone. Due to its open design, APMV’s passengers are exposed to communications between the external human-machine interface (eHMI) on APMV and pedestrians. Therefore, effective eHMI designs for APMV need to consider potential impacts of APMV-pedestrian interactions on passengers’ subjective feelings. This study from the perspective of APMV passengers discussed three eHMI designs: (1) graphical user interface (GUI)-based eHMI with text message (eHMI-T), (2) multimodal user interface (MUI)-based eHMI with neutral voice (eHMI-NV), and (3) MUI-based eHMI with affective voice (eHMI-AV). In a riding field experiment (N = 24), eHMI-T made passengers feel awkward during the “silent time” when eHMI-T conveyed information exclusively to pedestrians, not passengers. MUI-based eHMIs with voice cues showed advantages, with eHMI-NV excelling in pragmatic quality and eHMI-AV in hedonic quality. Considering passengers’ personalities and genders in APMV eHMI design is also highlighted.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
JournalInternational journal of human-computer interaction
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Feb 2024

Keywords

  • Autonomous personal mobility vehicles
  • external human–machine interface (eHMI)
  • human–AV communication
  • traffic psychology
  • ITC-HYBRID
  • ITC-ISI-JOURNAL-ARTICLE

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