Different labeling strategies for enzymatic assays and immunoassays are reviewed. Techniques which make use of direct detection of a label, e.g. radioimmunoassays, are discussed, as are techniques in which the label is associated with inherent signal amplification. Examples of the latter, e.g. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays or nanoparticle-label based assays, are presented. Coupling of the bioassays to chromatographic separations adds selectivity but renders the assays more difficult to apply. The advantages and drawbacks of the different analytical principles, including future perspectives, are discussed and compared. Selected applications from clinical, pharmaceutical, and environmental analysis are provided as examples.