Laparoscopic Probe for Sentinel Lymph Node Harvesting using Magnetic Nanoparticles

Melissa van de Loosdrecht, Lennert Molenaar, Erik Krooshoop, Bennie ten Haken, Jeroen Meijerink, Lejla Alic*, Ivo A.M.J. Broeders

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
113 Downloads (Pure)


Objective: Sentinel lymph node harvesting is an essential step in the surgical treatment of a growing number of malignancies. Various techniques are available to facilitate this purpose. The present study reports a new laparoscopic technique for lymph node harvesting using magnetic nanoparticles containing a superparamagnetic iron-oxide core and dextran coating. This study assesses the clinical relevance of the prototype and provides input for further technological development on the way to clinical implementation. Methods: A laparoscopic differential magnetometer prototype was built, utilizing a nonlinear detection principle (differential magnetometry) for magnetic identification of lymph nodes. The iron content sensitivity, depth & spatial sensitivity, and angular sensitivity were analyzed to investigate clinical options. Results: The minimum detectable amount of iron was 9.8 μg at a distance of 1 mm. The detection depth was 5, 8, and 10 mm for samples containing 126, 252, and 504 μg iron, respectively. The maximum lateral detection distance was 5, 7, and 8 mm for samples containing 126, 252, and 504 μg iron, respectively. A sample containing 504 μg iron was detectable at all angulations assessed (0°, 30°, 60° and 90°). Conclusion: The laparoscopic differential magnetometer demonstrates promising results for further investigation and development towards laparoscopic lymph node harvesting using magnetic nanoparticles. Significance: The laparoscopic differential magnetometer facilitates a novel method for sentinel lymph node harvesting, which helps to determine prognosis and treatment of cancer patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)286-293
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE transactions on biomedical engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2022


  • Laparoscopes
  • Laparoscopic surgery
  • Lymph nodes
  • Magnetic detection
  • Magnetic nanoparticle
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Magnetic separation
  • Magnetometers
  • Magnetosphere
  • Probes
  • Sentinel lymph node
  • Laparoscopic differential magnetometer


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