It is shown experimentally that in laser interference lithography, by using a reference grating, respective grating layers can be positioned with high relative accuracy. A 0.001 angular and a few nanometers lateral resolution have been demonstrated.
van Soest, F. J., van Wolferen, H. A. G. M., Hoekstra, H., de Ridder, R. M., Worhoff, K., & Lambeck, P. (2005). Laser interference lithography with highly accurate interferometric alignment. Japanese journal of applied physics, 44(9A), 6568-6570. [10.1143/JJAP.44.6568]. https://doi.org/10.1143/JJAP.44.6568