Leachable poly(trimethylene carbonate)/CaCO3 composites for additive manufacturing of microporous vascular structures

Zhengchao Guo, Dirk Grijpma, André Poot*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
63 Downloads (Pure)


The aim of this work was to fabricate microporous poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) vascular structures by stereolithography (SLA) for applications in tissue engineering and organ models. Leachable CaCO3 particles with an average size of 0.56 μm were used as porogens. Composites of photocrosslinkable PTMC and CaCO3 particles were cast on glass plates, crosslinked by ultraviolet light treatment and leached in watery HCl solutions. In order to obtain interconnected pore structures, the PTMC/CaCO3 composites had to contain at least 30 vol % CaCO3. Leached PTMC films had porosities ranging from 33% to 71% and a pore size of around 0.5 μm. The mechanical properties of the microporous PTMC films matched with those of natural blood vessels. Resins based on PTMC/CaCO3 composites with 45 vol % CaCO3 particles were formulated and successfully used to build vascular structures of various shapes and sizes by SLA. The intrinsic permeabilities of the microporous PTMC films and vascular structures were at least one order of magnitude higher than reported for the extracellular matrix, indicating no mass transfer limitations in the case of cell seeding.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3435
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 4 Aug 2020


  • Additive manufacturing
  • CaCO
  • Composite
  • Microporous
  • Poly(trimethylene carbonate)
  • Stereolithography
  • Vascular structures


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