In this paper, two experiments on the use of hypermedia environments for learning about probability theory are reported. In Experiment 1a it was tested whether multimedia design principles (multimedia principle, modality principle, redundancy principle) are valid in hypermedia environments, despite the fact that hypermedia offers more learner control than multimedia. The results showed only little evidence for this validity, although the hypermedia environment entailed only a rather low level of learner control. In Experiment 1b it was investigated how learner control affects performance and how its possible impact is moderated by learners’ prior knowledge. A high level of learner control positively affected the effectiveness of instruction only with regard to intuitive knowledge, but was at the same time accompanied by large increases in learning time, thereby rendering the instruction inefficient. Unexpectedly, effects of learner control were not moderated by students’ prior knowledge. The results imply that the idea to use multimedia design principles for hypermedia learning is too simple and that the benefits and drawbacks of learner control depend heavily on learning objectives and time constraints.
- Hypermedia learning
- Learner control
- Multimedia design principles
Gerjets, P., Scheiter, K., Opfermann, M., Hesse, F. W., & Eysink, T. H. S. (2009). Learning with hypermedia: The influence of representational formats and different levels of learner control on performance and learning behavior. Computers in human behavior, 25(2), 360-370. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2008.12.015