Li intercalation in graphite: a van der Waals density functional study

E. Hazrati, G.A. de Wijs, G. Brocks

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Modeling layered intercalation compounds from first principles poses a problem, as many of their properties are determined by a subtle balance between van der Waals interactions and chemical or Madelung terms, and a good description of van der Waals interactions is often lacking. Using van der Waals density functionals we study the structures, phonons and energetics of the archetype layered intercalation compound Li-graphite. Intercalation of Li in graphite leads to stable systems with calculated intercalation energies of −0.2 to −0.3 eV/Li atom, (referred to bulk graphite and Li metal). The fully loaded stage 1 and stage 2 compounds LiC 6 and Li 1/2 C 6 are stable, corresponding to two-dimensional 3 √ ×3 √ lattices of Li atoms intercalated between two graphene planes. Stage N>2 structures are unstable compared to dilute stage 2 compounds with the same concentration. At elevated temperatures dilute stage 2 compounds easily become disordered, but the structure of Li 3/16 C 6 is relatively stable, corresponding to a 7 √ ×7 √ in-plane packing of Li atoms. First-principles calculations, along with a Bethe-Peierls model of finite temperature effects, allow for a microscopic description of the observed voltage profiles
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)155448/1-155448/11
Number of pages11
JournalPhysical review B: Condensed matter and materials physics
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • METIS-306415
  • IR-94962

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