For the first time, we used computer simulations to study lift forces on two static disks placed side-by-side within a two-dimensional granular flow and found them to be either repulsive or attractive depending on the flow velocity and separation between the disks. Our simulations results reveal that differences in the flow velocity between the disks and outside of that region are closely correlated with the lift force. We propose an empirical function for the lift force based on this correlation and our dimensional analysis. The specific region where the measured velocity exhibits this correlation suggests that attractive lift is not a Bernoulli-like effect. Instead, we speculate that it might be explained by a force balance based on Coulomb's theory of passive failure in a Mohr-Coulomb material. Our results confirm that repulsive lift is due to the jamming of particles flowing between the disks.
|Number of pages||16|
|Journal||Journal of fluid mechanics|
|Publication status||Published - 10 Aug 2016|
- complex fluids
- granular media
- granular mixing