Lignocellulose Liquefaction to Biocrude: A Tutorial Review

Jean Paul Lange* (Corresponding Author)

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)
252 Downloads (Pure)


After 40 years of research and development, liquefaction technologies are now being demonstrated at 200–3000 tons per year scale to convert lignocellulosic biomass to biocrudes for use as heavy fuel or for upgrading to biofuels. This Review attempts to present the various facets of the liquefaction process in a tutorial manner. Emphasis is placed on liquefaction in high-boiling solvents, with regular reference to liquefaction in subcritical water or other light-boiling solvents. Reaction chemistry, solvent selection, role of optional catalyst as well as biocrude composition and properties are discussed in depth. Challenges in biomass feeding and options for biocrude–solvent separation are addressed. Process concepts are reviewed and demonstration/commercialization efforts are presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)997-1014
Number of pages18
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 22 Mar 2018


  • UT-Hybrid-D
  • Biomass
  • Industrial scale
  • Liquefaction
  • Solvents
  • Biocrude


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