Bone graft substitutes such as calcium phosphates are subject to the innate inflammatory reaction, which may bear important consequences for bone regeneration. We speculate that the surface architecture of osteoinductive β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) stimulates the differentiation of invading monocyte/macrophages into osteoclasts, and that these cells may be essential to ectopic bone formation. To test this, porous TCP cubes with either submicron-scale surface architecture known to induce ectopic bone formation (TCPs, positive control) or micron-scale, non-osteoinductive surface architecture (TCPb, negative control) were subcutaneously implanted on the backs of FVB strain mice for 12 weeks. Additional TCPs samples received local, weekly injections of liposome-encapsulated clodronate (TCPs + LipClod) to deplete invading monocyte/macrophages. TCPs induced osteoclast formation, evident by positive tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) cytochemical staining and negative macrophage membrane marker F4/80 immunostaining. No TRAP positive cells were found in TCPb or TCPs + LipClod, only F4/80 positive macrophages and foreign body giant cells. TCPs stimulated subcutaneous bone formation in all implants, while no bone could be found in TCPb or TCPs + LipClod. In agreement, expression of bone and osteoclast gene markers was upregulated in TCPs versus both TCPb and TCPs + LipClod, which were equivalent. In summary, submicron-scale surface structure of TCP induced osteoclastogenesis and ectopic bone formation in a process that is blocked by monocyte/macrophage depletion.
|Publication status||Published - 2014|