Chronic liver diseases (CLDs) caused by viral infections, alcohol/drug abuse, or metabolic disorders affect millions of people globally and have increased mortality owing to the lack of approved therapies. Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a family of multifaceted enzymes that are responsible for the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and are implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple disorders including liver diseases. This review describes the three main LOX signaling pathways – 5-, 12-, and 15-LOX – and their involvement in CLDs. We also provide recent insights and future perspectives on LOX-related hepatic pathophysiology, and discuss the potential of LOXs and LOX-derived metabolites as diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets in CLDs.
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