Liquid phase epitaxy and optical investigation of KYb(WO4)2 thin layers

Y.E. Romanyuk, D. Ehrentraut, A. Aznar, R. Sole, M. Aguilo, P. Gerner, H.U. Güdel, Markus Pollnau

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    Abstract

    In recent years, Yb3+ has attracted much attention as an activating ion because of its small quantum defect for laser emission from 2F5/2 to 2F7/2 at ~1.03 µm [1], which provides high efficiency and reduced heat generation. Of high practical interest is the thin-disk laser concept [2], which possesses a tremendous advantage over rod lasers because of its axial-cooling approach and consequent weak thermal lensing and good beam quality. A promising material for Yb3+ thin-disk lasers is KYb(WO4)2 (KYbW) [3]. It can be grown from high-temperature solutions [4]. Nevertheless, the growth of high-quality, single-crystalline layers with thickness in the range of the absorption length of ~13 µm at 981 nm has as yet not been reported. A suitable substrate material is KY(WO4)2 (KYW), but the relatively large differences in the thermal expansion coefficients between KYW and KYbW along the [100], [001], and especially [010] directions [5] favor low temperatures for the hetero-epitaxial growth. For the first time, we demonstrate liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) of KYbW layers. The layers were grown at start temperatures as low as 520°C, which is favorable in order to decrease the thermal stresses due to the differences in the thermal expansion coefficients of substrate and layer. Moreover, the choice of [010]-oriented substrates bypasses the large difference in the thermal expansion coefficient along the [010] direction. KY1-xYbx(WO4)2 layers with varying x = 0.03-1.00 were grown by LPE. The chloride solvent consisted of the eutectic composition [6] 24.4 mol.% KCl, 30.4 mol.% NaCl, and 42.2 mol.% CsCl. The growth temperature spanned the range from 580 to 500°C and the cooling rate was 0.67-1.00 Kh-1. Crack-free, transparent KYbW layers were grown on (010) substrates. Spectroscopic investigations have shown that the lifetime of ~250 µs measured in our LPE-grown KYbW layers is dominated by radiative decay and is very similar to that measured in top-seeded-solution-grown bulk samples [4]. Fast energy migration among the Yb3+ ions and energy transfer to small amounts of Tm3+ and Er3+ ions present in the YbCl3 reagent lead to visible upconversion luminescence in the layers under 981-nm excitation. [1] T.Y. Fan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1457 (1993). [2] A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, H. Opower, Appl. Phys. B 58, 365 (1994). [3] P. Klopp, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, M.A. Bursukova, M.C. Pujol, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, F. Güell, J. Massons, T. Kirilov, F. Díaz, Appl. Phys. B 74, 185 (2002). [4] M.C. Pujol, M.A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002). [5] M.C. Pujol, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, F. Díaz, M. Aguiló, Mater. Sci. Forum 378-381, 710 (2001). [6] D. Ehrentraut, M. Pollnau, S. Kück, Appl. Phys. B 75, 59 (2002).
    Original languageUndefined
    PagesO22
    Number of pages1
    Publication statusPublished - Jun 2003
    EventAbstracts of the 4th International Spring Workshop on Spectroscopy, Structure & Synthesis of Rare Earth Systems - Ladek Zdroj, Poland
    Duration: 21 Jun 200326 Jun 2003

    Workshop

    WorkshopAbstracts of the 4th International Spring Workshop on Spectroscopy, Structure & Synthesis of Rare Earth Systems
    Period21/06/0326/06/03
    Other21-26 June 2003

    Keywords

    • IOMS-APD: Active Photonic Devices
    • EWI-17999
    • IR-72144

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