Locally Addressable Energy Efficient Actuation of Magnetic Soft Actuator Array Systems

Michiel Richter, Jakub Sikorski, Pavlo Makushko, Yevhen Zabila, Venkatasubramanian Kalpathy Venkiteswaran, Denys Makarov*, Sarthak Misra*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
49 Downloads (Pure)


Advances in magnetoresponsive composites and (electro-)magnetic actuators have led to development of magnetic soft machines (MSMs) as building blocks for small-scale robotic devices. Near-field MSMs offer energy efficiency and compactness by bringing the field source and effectors in close proximity. Current challenges of near-field MSM are limited programmability of effector motion, dimensionality, ability to perform collaborative tasks, and structural flexibility. Herein, a new class of near-field MSMs is demonstrated that combines microscale thickness flexible planar coils with magnetoresponsive polymer effectors. Ultrathin manufacturing and magnetic programming of effectors is used to tailor their response to the nonhomogeneous near-field distribution on the coil surface. The MSMs are demonstrated to lift, tilt, pull, or grasp in close proximity to each other. These ultrathin (80 µm) and lightweight (100 gm−2) MSMs can operate at high frequency (25 Hz) and low energy consumption (0.5 W), required for the use of MSMs in portable electronics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2302077
Number of pages11
JournalAdvanced science
Issue number24
Early online date17 Jun 2023
Publication statusPublished - 25 Aug 2023


  • Independent actuation
  • Magnetic near-field
  • Magnetic soft machines
  • Planar coils


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