Urban mining offers an efficient supply of resources because of rich mines and low environmental impacts. Location selection and optimization for urban mining facilities is more complicated than for natural mines, given that it may vary according to the urban population, consumption habits, and economic development. China initiated the National Urban Mining Pilot Bases program in 2010 that targeted 50 national urban mining pilot bases, but unfortunately neglected the location planning issue. Twenty-eight bases have already been selected, which are concentrated in the central and eastern areas of China. This article combines the use of analytic hierarchy process, maximal covering location model, and geographical information systems (GIS) software to optimize locations for China's urban mining pilot bases. Primary findings show that, theoretically, 40 urban mining pilot bases can sufficiently provide maximum gross domestic product (GDP) and population coverage service for China. Taking the current 28 bases as a precondition and 50 bases as the remaining policy target, our second optimization results in a list of 22 cities for the location selection of future urban mining pilot bases. In total, the optimized 22 cities, together with the selected 28 bases, can provide a maximum 97.5% of GDP and 95.1% of population coverage in China. This study illustrates the optimization process for urban mining recycling facilities in general and provides policy advice for China in a specific case.