Background Intraoperative microelectrode recording (MER) for targeting during deep brain stimulation (DBS) procedures has been evaluated over a period of 4 years, in 57 consecutive patients with Parkinson's disease, who received DBS in the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS), and 28 consecutive patients with either dystonia (23) or Parkinson's disease (five), in whom the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi-DBS) was targeted. Methods The procedure for DBS was a one-stage bilateral stereotactic approach using a combined electrode for both MER and macrostimulation. Up to five micro/macroelectrodes were used in an array with a central, lateral, medial, anterior, and posterior position. Final target location was based on intraoperative test stimulation. Findings For the STN, the central trajectory was chosen for implantation in 50% of the cases and for the globus pallidus internus (GPi) in 57% of the cases. Furthermore, in 64% of the cases, the channel selected for the permanent electrode corresponded with the trajectory having the longest segment of STN MER activity. For the GPi, this was the case in 61%. The mean and standard deviation of the deepest contact point with respect to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based target for the STN was 2.1± 1.5 mm and for the GPi was -0.5±1.2 mm. Conclusions MER facilitates the selection of the final electrode location in STN-DBS and GPi-DBS, and based on the observed MER activity, a pre-selection could be made as to which channel would be the best candidate for macro-test stimulation and at which depth should be stimulated. The choice of the final location is based on intraoperative test stimulation, and it is demonstrated that regularly it is not the central channel that is chosen for implantation. On average, the target as defined by MER activity intensity was in accordance with the MRI-based targets both for the STN and GPi. However, the position of the best MER activity did not necessarily correlate with the locus that produced the most beneficial clinical response on macroelectrode testing intraoperatively.
- Deep brain stimulation
- Globus pallidus
- Intraoperative microelectrode recordings
- Stereotactic neurosurgery
- Subthalamic nucleus