Low-carbon transport policy in four ASEAN countries: Developments in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam

Stefan Bakker*, Kathleen Dematera Contreras, Monica Kappiantari, Nguyen Anh Tuan, Marie Danielle Guillen, Gessarin Gunthawong, Mark Zuidgeest, Duncan Liefferink, Martin van Maarseveen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)
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Emerging countries in Southeast Asia are facing considerable challenges in addressing rising motorisation and its negative impact on air quality, traffic, energy security, liveability, and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the approach and status of sustainable, low-carbon transport policy in ASEAN countries and identifies differences and similarities. The methodology is based on a taxonomy of policy components as developed by Howlett and Cashore. The data come from comprehensive country studies for Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam and interviews with policymakers. We find that each country has a specific set of goals, objectives and targets that support sustainable transport, and, directly or indirectly, climate change mitigation. In terms of specific mechanisms and calibrations, which we analyse based on the Avoid-Shift-Improve approach, there are notable differences between the countries, for example in terms of fuel economy policy. Even though an initial response to climate change mitigation challenges is visible in these countries' transport policies, much more effort is required to enable a transition to a transport system compatible with long-term climate change and sustainable development targets.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1217
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 13 Jul 2017


  • ASEAN countries
  • Climate change mitigation
  • Comparative analysis
  • Low-carbon transport
  • Transport policy


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