Low-level finite state (locked-unlocked) control is compared with open-loop stimulation of the knee extensor muscles in functional electrical stimulation (FES) induced paraplegic standing. The parameters were: duration of standing, relative torque loss in knee extensor muscles, knee angle stability, average stimulus output and average arm effort during standing. To investigate the impact of external mechanical conditions on controller performance, experiments were performed both under the condition of a freely moving ankle joint and of a mechanically stabilized ankle joint. Finite state control resulted in a 2.5 to 12 times increase of standing duration or in a 1.5 to 5 times decrease of relative torque loss in comparison with open-loop stimulation. Finite state control induced a limit cycle oscillation in the knee joint. Average maximum knee flexion was 6.2° without ankle bracing, and half that value with ankle bracing. Average arm support was 13.9 and 7.5% of the body weight without and with ankle bracing respectively.
- knee joint
- paraplegic standing
- ankle bracing
- Finite state control
Mulder, A. J., Mulder, A. J., Veltink, P. H., Boom, H. B. K., Zilvold, G., & Zilvold, G. (1992). Low-level finite state control of knee joint in paraplegic standing. Journal of biomedical engineering, 14(1), 3-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-5425(92)90028-J