We report on systematic growth and characterization of low-loss germanosilicate layers for use in optical waveguide technology. The films were deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique using silane, germane, and nitrous oxide as precursor gases. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor the compositional properties of the samples. It was found that addition of germane leads to decreasing of N-H- and O-H-related bonds. The propagation loss values of the planar waveguides were correlated with the decrease in the hydrogen-related bonds of the as-deposited waveguides and resulted in very low values, eliminating the need for high-temperature annealing as is usually done.
Ay, F., Aydinli, A., & Agan, S. (2003). Low-loss as-grown germanosilicate layers for optical waveguides. Applied physics letters, 83(23), 4743-4745. [10.1063/1.1631753]. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1631753