Low loss Si3N4 TriPleX optical waveguides: Technology and applications overview

Chris G.H. Roeloffzen (Corresponding Author), Marcel Hoekman, Edwin J. Klein, Lennart S. Wevers, Roelof B. Timens, Denys Marchenko, Dimitri Geskus, Ronald Dekker, Andrea Alippi, Robert Grootjans, Albert van Rees, Ruud M. Oldenbeuving, Jörn P. Epping, René G. Heideman, Kerstin Wörhoff, Arne Leinse, Douwe Geuzebroek, Erik Schreuder, Paulus W.L. van Dijk, Ilka VisscherCaterina Taddei, Youwen Fan, Caterina Taballione, Yang Liu, David Marpaung, Leimeng Zhuang, Meryem Benelajla, Klaus-J. Boller

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An overview of the most recent developments and improvements to the low-loss TriPleX Si3N4 waveguide technology is presented in this paper. The TriPleX platform provides a suite of waveguide geometries (box, double stripe, symmetric single stripe, and asymmetric double stripe) that can be combined to design complex functional circuits, but more important are manufactured in a single monolithic process flow to create a compact photonic integrated circuit. All functionalities of the integrated circuit are constructed using standard basic building blocks, namely straight and bent waveguides, splitters/combiners and couplers, spot size converters, and phase tuning elements. The basic functionalities that have been realized are: ring resonators and Mach-Zehnder interferometer filters, tunable delay elements, and waveguide switches. Combination of these basic functionalities evolves into more complex functions such as higher order filters, beamforming networks, and fully programmable architectures. Introduction of the active InP chip platform in a combination with the TriPleX will introduce light generation, modulation, and detection to the low-loss platform. This hybrid integration strategy enables fabrication of tunable lasers, fully integrated filters, and optical beamforming networks.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4400321
Number of pages21
JournalIEEE journal of selected topics in quantum electronics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2018


  • Beam steering
  • Integrated optics
  • lasers
  • Optical communications
  • Optical filters
  • Optical waveguides


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